Motivation as a mechanism for employees’ performance: a case study of Samberi Hypermarket, Vladivostok, Russia

Shahab Mohammad Hamed1, Potapova M.A.2
1 Дальневосточный федеральный университет, Россия, Москва
2 Far Eastern Federal University, Россия, Москва

Статья в журнале

Экономика труда
Том 8, Номер 5 (Май 2021)

Цитировать:
Shahab Mohammad Hamed, Potapova M.A. Motivation as a mechanism for employees’ performance: a case study of Samberi Hypermarket, Vladivostok, Russia // Экономика труда. – 2021. – Том 8. – № 5. – С. 549-564. – doi: 10.18334/et.8.5.112063.

Эта статья проиндексирована РИНЦ, см. https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=45831181

Аннотация:
Employees are the lifeblood of every company. Hence, Employee collaboration cannot be substituted for in order for any company to function smoothly and without interruption. Therefore, employees must establish a positive and professional relationship with their coworkers in addition to having a successful relationship with top management. But in this era of competition many organizations tackle the problem of motivating their workers. as a result of lack of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation many employees leave their job. In this research we have meticulously focused on the lack of motivation outcomes as a result of which many employees have left their job in Samberi Hypermarket, Placed in Vladivostok city of Russia. The following study is a self-conducted investigation into how motivational tools affect employee performance in order to improve it. Descriptive statistical analysis techniques were used to examine the results. To investigate the role of motivation and the consequences of its deficit, we distributed 100 questionnaires from which we received 100 back 50 males and 50 females respondents (N=100) from Samberi hypermarket. In Samberi, a lack of motivation had a major effect on bad results and work quitting.

Ключевые слова: motivation, employee, employee performance, productivity, organizational objectives

JEL-классификация: J25, J28, J81



Introduction

Any organization, whether public or private, is most concerned with motivation. Motivation is key to the success of every company. Regardless of whether they are in the public or private sector, any organization faces the issue of motivation [4] (Chintallo, Mahadeo, 2013). According to [5] (Chaudhary, Sharma, 2012), motivation is derived from the term "motive." The term "motive" refers to a person's needs, wishes, and desires. As a result, "employee motivation" refers to the mechanism by which a company motivates its employees to achieve corporate goals through promotions, bonuses, and other incentives. Organizations can now easily transfer their materials, requirements, products, and services to other organizations or countries. Human capital, on the other hand, are the only non-exchangeable resource. As a result, we may conclude that human capital are the most essential or competitive assets of any company that cannot be traded. Human resources, also known as human assets, refer to an organization's staff or employees. As a result, enthusiasm is the most important factor affecting the organization's human capital. Employees should be inspired to perform at their best or to meet the organization's objectives. Motivation is, in reality, the most powerful tool for achieving peak efficiency. Many people are talking about motivation these days, as well as the relationship between employee efficiency and organizational efficiency. Motivation can lead to the organization's staff or employees taking their roles and obligations seriously [1] (Azar, Shafighi, 2013). Attractive Salaries or Pays are also a valuable tool for improving employee efficiency as well as increasing an organization's productivity [15, p. 70–80] (MUOGBO, 2013, p. 70–80).

Employee engagement and capacity to collectively engage in employee success and challenging tasks assigned by the manager are used to achieve optimum efficiency, according to [8] (Iqbal, Yusaf, Munawar, Naheed, 2012). Researchers are now more concerned than ever before with increasing efficiency, perfection, and working capacity. In research history, the needs and expectations of workers have become increasingly relevant.

Motivation is one of the most significant psychological terms, and most managers who want to maximize production and productivity use it. They approach this in a constructive manner to better inspire their workers. It also promotes employee and manager collaboration and encourages their duties. Often, enable their subordinates to participate, to take their duties more seriously, and to assist in the supervision of other employees and the monitoring of their performance. And to encourage them to engage as much as possible at work, as well as to understand each employee's working ability and delegate work based on that capacity in order to achieve full productivity [2, p. 126–133] (Ali, Abrar, Haider, 2012, p. 126–133).

Employees have a huge influence on how consumers view the business. Companies spend a lot of money to achieve customer loyalty, but they overlook the morale of their employees. Customers communicate with workers and, as a result of their actions and attitude, hold the business logo in their minds. As a result, the company's focus should shift to employee motivation. Companies now face market rivalry if they are unable to effectively inspire their employees in the age of globalization. Today as a result of lack of motivation many employees of organizations quite their jobs, one of them is Samberi hypermarket. Finally, our research and data collected showed that the major reason for quitting jobs by employees is lack of motivation.

Statement of the problem

Business organizations in today's competitive environment are confronted with increasing challenges in terms of employee motivation, engagement, confidence, recruiting, and retention. According to research conducted by DDI (Development Dimensions International), only 19% of workers are strongly engaged at work. Not only that, but many of these companies are also having problems with recruiting (84 percent). Ludhans described motivation as "giving your employees the right combination of encouragement, direction, resources, and incentives to encourage and motivate them to function in the way you want them to". As a result, a significant portion of the problems can be easily solved by instilling proper motivation. Robert believes that in today's fiercely competitive environment, businesses are placing a greater emphasis on human resource management. A good manager is one that can successfully handle his employees. In this case, motivational strategies are the most important. We conducted our research in a few Samberi hypermarket branches in order to obtain a more reliable result. The aim of the research is to determine what degree of employee decision-making involvement can inspire workers to improve their diligence, perseverance, and resolve.

Objectives of the study

· The aim of this study was to look into the motivational state of Samberi Hypermarket.

· To investigate the effects and consequences of employee underperformance due to a lack of motivation.

· To make suggestions on what more should be done to improve both the company and the employee's performance using motivational methods.

Research questions

· What are the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational influences on employee performance?

· What is the effect of motivation on job security for employees and vice versa organization?

Hypotheses

· Employees’ performance is heavily influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

· Motivation has a positive effect on job security for employees and vice versa organization.

The scope of the study

The research was carried out in a well-known hypermarket in the Russian city of Vladivostok. We conducted our analysis on about 100 employees from three Samberi hypermarket branches. The survey was administered to workers at various levels and with varying levels of experience. Primorski, primarily in the Vladivostok area, was the focus of the study. For data collection from respondents, we used a closed-ended descriptive questionnaire. There are numerous similar hypermarkets in Vladivostok where such studies can be easily performed and the results used for their benefit.

Importance of the study

What are the advantages of getting motivated workers? In our fast-changing workplaces, motivated workers are essential. We need to know where we stand right now in terms of employee morale and what else we need to do to ensure more productive output from our employees because we are still a developing country. For our continued development, it is crucial that our economy be well-governed and that we can provide our full effort in workplaces. We must also equate ourselves to others in order to assess where we stand in terms of personal benefits. As a result, the importance of this research cannot be overstated.

Brief History of the Study Area-Samberi hypermarket

1994–1995: The history of "Samberi" goes back to the days of the birth of the business of the "Nevada" Company. Then, in the city of Khabarovsk at the address: st. Zaparina 2-a, in a wooden structure of no more than 100 sq.m, the first warehouse was equipped, the area of which was no more than 25 sq.m. The main activity and business idea was a system for delivering goods to customers in retail outlets in Khabarovsk [16].

1998–1999: The company "Nevada" took the first step towards retail, opening a small store on the Central Market, which sold the assortment of "Nevada". The first sales are Mars products. Today Mars is the leading supplier of the Company [16].

Today Samberi is 30 hypermarkets located in 9 cities of the Far East: Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Ussuriysk, Birobidzhan, Nakhodka, Fokino, Blagoveshchensk and Belogorsk. The company plans to further develop the network in the region [17].

Literature review

Motivation

The term motivation was coined in the late 1800s and is derived from the words motive and motivate. The dictionary definition of motivation is “A motive or motives for acting or behaving in a specific way” [14]. Despite this, there is a clear distinction in the perspectives and methods taken by researchers when it comes to motivation. Making an effort is linked to motivation, according to [10, p. 37–95; 12, p. 193–216] (Likert, 1961, p. 37–95; Navarro, 1998, p. 193–216). Motivation is viewed as a means of complete participation by [9, p. 265–277] (Kanungo, 1980, p. 265–277). believes that motivation is described as a push. Motivation can refer to a variety of things and can be defined in a variety of ways, but the goal is always the same: to inspire, activate, clout, or prompt.

Employee

Employees are the lifeblood of every company. How they feel about their job and the outcomes of that work has a significant impact on an organization's success and, eventually, its stability. For example, if an organization's workers are highly motivated and diligent, they would go above and beyond to accomplish the organization's objectives while still keeping track of the organization's success in order to overcome any future problems [6] (Gyimah, 2014). Employee performance is an essential component of any company and the most significant factor in determining its effectiveness and rated performance.

Productivity

Productivity is the ratio of output or production potential of employees in a company. Improved efficiency is the primary goal of employee motivation. According to [3, p. 219–242] (Arnold, Hussinger, 2005, p. 219–242), a successful employee has a strong skill set and works in a productive atmosphere.

Organizational objectives and employee performance

The main purpose for any organization's activities is to achieve organizational goals, which are described as a level of performance based on a variety of factors. Organizational success is critical to achieving certain objectives. Some claim it actually refers to an individual's job satisfaction, or whether or not they enjoy the job or specific aspects or facets of employment, such as the nature of work or supervision. Meeting personal goals, according to [7, p. 1573–1575] (Griffiths, 2001, p. 1573–1575), helps an employee remain motivated and feel good about themselves, allowing them to continue to produce. Motivation helps to increase efficiency and thereby achieve corporate objectives by enhancing proficiency and employee interaction. Motivation transforms the spirit into an embodied entity as a psychological catalyst. “Organizational effectiveness” is described by [11, p. 1–49] (Lazonick, O'Sullivan, 1996, p. 1–49) as “the degree to which an organization achieves its objectives with limited resources and minimal burden on its members”. We often aids in the efficient use of human resources, employee happiness, collective consistency, and workforce longevity, all of which are essential factors in achieving organizational goals, smoothing organizational efficiency, and thus bringing about job satisfaction.

Motivational theories

Abraham Harold Maslow’s Motivation Theory

Some people, according to Maslow, tend to be happy with lower-level needs only before they are met; after that, they will search for the next level. Maslow proposed a five-level hierarchy of human needs, which he called Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Workers are driven by getting and level of need met in order as they advance through the hierarchy, according to Abraham Maslow's theory. The levels of need are Physical, Security, Social, Self-esteem, and Self-fulfillment. A individual who is hungry, for example, would be driven to earn a basic wage so that he can buy food before thinking about securing a job.

Theory of Scientific Management: Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1910

He was an American engineer and inventor who developed the scientific management theory, also known as task management, by applying his engineering and scientific expertise to management and development. Establish specific guidelines for how work should be done, according to scientific management principles. Employees are chosen, educated, and progressed. Cooperate with employees to ensure that work is done in accordance with previously established laws, as well as a fair division of labor and responsibility between management and employees. He emphasized the fact that monetary compensation was the best way to motivate employees. Taylor assumed that only money could motivate employees to go above and beyond what was expected of them at work. To him, management had to set goals, reward employees who met them, and, if necessary, fire employees who failed to achieve their goals. Through this, Taylor was undoubtedly a supporter of the Piece Rate system, in which everyone is paid per unit of product made, implying that slackers will earn less and those who excel at their jobs will earn more.

Herzberg Two Factor Theory

One of the most well-known motivational thinkers is Frederick Herzberg. Herzberg was a psychologist, much like many of the motivational theorists. Nonetheless, he was unusual in that he was a specialist in company administration (business psychology). Taylor concluded that money was the only driving force, which Herzberg diagreed with. Herzberg conducted research that led him to believe that there are several more factors (non-financial Motivators) that play an important role in employee motivation than income. The term two-factor theory comes from Herzberg's division of these factors into two parts. He named a set of factors he dubbed "motivators," which he described as factors that motivate people to work hard at their jobs and aspire to do better. Employees would be demotivated if these variables are missing, but even if they are present, they do not guarantee employee motivation. To summarize, this principle leaves managers and leaders with two tasks to complete in the near future in order to keep workers motivated: first, they must ensure that motivators are in place, and second, they must follow all hygiene factors.

Research methodology

Research design

The research design accepted is descriptive survey. The aim of conducting descriptive surveys was to gather detailed and factual information about a current phenomenon. A survey questionnaire was developed based on a review of the literature to collect data for the study The primary data was collected using this type of questionnaire, which was hand delivered to the target employees. The workers who took part in the survey completed and returned the questionnaires. The findings were then analyzed further using descriptive statistical analysis to see how motivational factors influence their success. Since it used a questionnaire to determine the effect of employee motivation on organizational success, this research is classified as a descriptive survey.

Sample design and size

Based on their designation and experience level, a sample of about 100 people from the target population were chosen. The sample was taken using a stratified random sampling process, in which the population is divided into groups (in this case, by classification and experience) based on factors that may affect motivational effects. The strata (groups) in stratified random sampling are established based on members' common attributes or characteristics. It has the advantage of reducing sample selection bias and ensuring that certain population groups are not overrepresented or underrepresented.

Data collection instrument

Until analyzing, we collected primary data using a self-administered descriptive style questionnaire. the valuable verified questionnaires for this article based on the literature, conducted research by [13, p. 333–341] (Md. Nurun Nabi, Md. Monirul Islam, Tanvir Mahady, Md. Abdullah Al Hossain, 2017, p. 333–341), the impact of motivation on employee performances: a case study of karmasangsthan bank limited, Bangladesh. More over I was as a participant of this experiment, to obtain valued and accredited result I worked in this organization 10 days. In several ways, this questionnaire is useful. To begin, respondents respond whenever it is convenient for them. Second, no interview appointments are necessary. Additionally, there is no interviewer present to introduce bias into the questions posed. Furthermore, because of the low cost per completion, it is a cost-effective way to survey a large number of people.

Data analysis and presentation

As a data management and statistical analysis tool, we used SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Scientists), which has a very flexible data processing capability. It's a system for storing questionnaire data electronically. Data is held in a table that looks like a spreadsheet and works similarly to Microsoft Excel. It also produces routine descriptive statistical data for question answers, such as closed question frequency counts, multiple-choice question distributions, and so on. It produces graphical displays of questionnaire data for reporting, presentations, and publishing, as well as exploring relationships between responses to various questions and collecting open question responses.

Results and discussion

Demographic – Name, Occupation, Age, Sex, Marital status, Duration of service

Since the names and positions of all respondents will not be released in order to keep the respondents confidential, questions 1 and 2 will not be listed as findings in this document.

Figure 1. Age of respondents

Source: SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) data analysis.

People of different ages are motivated by different variables, so the age of the respondents is very significant. We can see from the graph above that the majority of the respondents are between the ages of 20 and 30, with fifty-two (52) respondents and a proportion of 52 percent. It is an undeniable fact that when people are younger, they have a lot of energy, which allows them to do more tasks in less time than older people. With a 41 percent response rate, forty-one (41) respondents are between the ages of 31 and 45. They cannot be inefficient or work poorly simply because they are over the age of 31. They frequently have a wealth of work experience and act as mentors to the younger generation (new colleagues). According to the famous saying, "Life begins at 40", we believe that after the age of 41, people know exactly what they want and will put forth every effort to achieve it. We can also see that seven (7) respondents are over the age of 45 (46–60).

Figure 2. Sex of respondents

Source: SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) data analysis.

The sex of all respondents is depicted in the graph above. We can deduce from the results that 50 of the respondents are female, with a ratio of 50 percent, and 50 percent of the respondents are male.

Question 1: The effects of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on employee performance. Salary, monetary incentives, compensation package, relationship with superiors, and relationship with colleagues are the five variables we looked at as extrinsic and intrinsic motivation determinants.

Table 1

Likert scale analysis for question one

Statement
Agree
Strongly agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Uncertain
Salary
6%
92%
0%
0%
2%
Monetary incentives
15%
80%
1%
0%
4%
Compensation package
21%
65%
2%
0%
12%
Relationship with superiors
35%
50%
10%
5%
0%
Relationship with colleagues
51%
30%
5%
10%
4%
Source: SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) data analysis.

Figure 3: Likert scale analysis for question one

Source: SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) data analysis.

Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation were found to be the most important factors in motivating employees. Under this factor, we found five repercussions. In the case of salary, 92% of respondents strongly agreed that it motivates workers to increase their performance; however, 6 agreed, 2% are unsure, and none of the respondents diagreed. When it comes to monetary bonuses, 80 percent of respondents strongly agreed that they inspire workers to increase their performance; 15 percent agreed, 4 percent are unsure, 1 percent disagree, and nobody strongly diagreed. When it comes to compensation packages, 65 percent of respondents strogly agreed that they encourage workers to boost their performance; 21 percent agree, 12 percent are unsure, 2 percent disagree, and none strongly disagree. In the case of relationships with superior, 50 percent of respondents strongly agreed that relationships with superior inspire workers to increase their performance; however, 35% sagree, 10% disagree, 5% strongly disagree and none is uncertain. In the case of relationship with colleague, 30 percent of respondents strongly agreed that relationship with colleague inspire workers to enhance their performance; 51 percent agree, 4% are unsure, 5% disagree, and 10% strongly disagree.

Question 2: The effect of motivation on job security for employees in organization.

Table 1

Likert scale analysis for question two

Statement
Agree
Strongly agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Uncertain
Currently motivational policy in effect
20%
10%
40%
12%
18%
Effect of motivation on performance
28%
52%
5%
0%
15%
opportunity for advancement
21%
12%
45%
7%
25%
Appreciation for work done
15%
7%
43%
20%
15%
Source: SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) data analysis.

Figure 4. Likert scale analysis for question two

Source: SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) data analysis.

Motivation was found to be the most important factors in employees performance but this policy is poorly implemented in this organization. Under this factor, we found four repercussions. In the case of currently motivational policy in effect, 10% of respondents strongly agreed that there is motivational programs; however, 20 agreed, 18% are unsure, 40% diagreed and 12% strongly diagreed. When it comes to effect of motivation on performance, 52 percent of respondents strongly agreed that they inspire workers to increase their performance; 28 percent agreed, 15 percent are unsure, 5 percent disagree, and nobody strongly diagreed. When it comes to opportunity for advancement, 12 percent of respondents strongly agreed that there is opportunity for advancement in Samberi, 21 percent agree, 25 percent are unsure, 45 percent disagree, and 7% strongly disagree. In the case of appreciation for work done in Samberi, 7 percent of respondents strongly agreed that there is appreciation for work done in Samberi; however, 15% sagree, 43% disagree, 20% strongly disagree and 15% are uncertain.

Summary and findings

According to the data analysis above, there are two sections to data analysis: the first part given the respondents' background data, and the second part represented elaborated expressions about their responses, which are shown in the form of percentages under each segment, the effect intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on employee performance and the effect of motivation on job security.

Effects of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on employee performance: Based on the findings of the survey, it can be concluded that extrinsic influences are a powerful motivator, as the majority of respondents believe. As a result, a good monetary and non-monetary incentive system should be devised. Employees can feel the need for more monetary rewards after a certain period of time. Considering the respnses by respondents in questionnaires the intrinsic motivation as good relationship with colleagues and superior hugely influence the employee performance.

Effect of motivation on job security: Employees' morale is also boosted by job security because they feel more comfortable doing their jobs knowing that their jobs are safe. As a result, it is preferable to have a legal agreement prior to joining vice versa this may work for the organization side. The employee may work for the organization for so long and organization does not need to hire new employee and spend money on his training. Hence, for achievement of this goal employees should be kept motivated to raise their performance and guarantee job security for both side. Lack of this motivation has resulted in the problem that many employees leave their job in Samberi hypermarket that ruins the job seruity for both employee and hypermarket.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study and the responses to the questionnaire, the researchers came to the conclusion that motivation does have a significant impact on employee success. We can clearly see from the data analysis presented above that the variables considered during the survey (extrinsic and intrinsic factors, motivation and job security forth both individual and organization) pragmatically dominate employees' willingness to succeed and achieve the respective organization's goals. Salary, monetary incentives, compensation package, relationship with superiors, and relationship with colleagues are factors considered under Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; currently motivational policy in effect, effect of motivation on performance, opportunity for advancement, appreciation for work done are the factors considered under motivation and job security for both organization and individual. The end result clearly demonstrated how motivation affects employee efficiency. According to the findings, It can easily be stated that there is a normal, if not obvious, connection between motivation and performance. Employees' level of success would almost certainly improve if they are given more motivation and exertion.

Recommendations

The findings of this study will undoubtedly be put to good use in improving country's current motivation situation in various sectors. It will assist in gaining a better understanding of both organizational and employee psychology. Motivating your staff is a delicate and deliberate task that necessitates more than an annual review or a few notes in a personnel file. Based on the study and survey conducted above, the following recommendations can be made.

Based on the study's findings, a company will determine whether or not it needs to take action in the area of motivation.

· The research can also be used to clarify how to apply various motivation theories in the workplace.

· Examine the extent to which motivation has been able to meet the expectations of employee prospects.

· To encourage these industries to use more motivational strategies in order to achieve greater success.

· The findings can be used to compare the current situation in terms of level motivation and determine the most appropriate rate of motivation to achieve organizational goals.


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