The importance of perceived value of training commitment on employees’ training motivation

Mohammad Hamed Shahab1, Potapova M.A.1
1 Дальневосточный федеральный университет, Россия, Владивосток

Статья в журнале

Экономика труда
Том 8, Номер 6 (Июнь 2021)

Цитировать:
Mohammad Hamed Shahab, Potapova M.A. The importance of perceived value of training commitment on employees’ training motivation // Экономика труда. – 2021. – Том 8. – № 6. – С. 601-614. – doi: 10.18334/et.8.6.112234.

Эта статья проиндексирована РИНЦ, см. https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=46214938

Аннотация:
In this research, the authors looked at whether employees\' perceptions of the importance of a training commitment are a factor that influences training motivation. The information was gathered from 120 employees at the Krovly Center factory in Artem, Primorski region, Russia. The findings backed up our hypothesis, demonstrating that workers who were explained the value of training and required assignment to undergo training had a higher motivation for training than those who were volunteers. Furthermore, the factory that requires their employees to participate in a training program sends a strong message to their employees that such training is critical. Employees\' training enthusiasm grows when they find training to be critical to achieving organizational goals. This study is ground-breaking, given that no prior studies are examining the relationship between the variable considered in this study.

Ключевые слова: training, commitment, motivation

JEL-классификация: J24, M53, O15



Introduction

One of the most effective methods for companies to help workers develop the necessary knowledge and skills to address environmental challenges is to provide training [17] (Goldstein, Gilliam, 1990). As a result, researchers have concentrated their efforts on determining how to improve the efficacy of training.

Trainee motivation is an important determinant of training effectiveness [22–24] (Mathieu, et al., 1993; Mathieu, Martineau, 1997; Mathews, Jerry, 2002). Individual differences such as motivation and attitudes, according to Noe (1986), are malleable individual differences that play a key role in training effectiveness [27] (Noe, 1986). Even if trainees are capable of learning the content of a course, low motivation can prevent them benefiting from the training. Other studies have indicated that trainee characteristics like motivation and attitude are more important to training performance than course material variables [14, 31] (Fleishman, Mumford, 1989; Quinones, 1997). As a result, trainee morale is critical to the training program's success.

Motivation is described as "an individual's decision to devote energy to one set of behaviors over another" [31, p. 182–183] (Quinones, 1997, p. 182–183). Motivation affects an employee's ability to undergo training in the first place in a training program [21, 28] (Maurer, Tarulli, 1994; Noe, Wilk, 1993). It may also influence a trainee's decision to devote time and effort to the training program [32] (Ryman, Biersner, 1975). Cheng and Ho (2001) analyzed research from the previous decade and came to the conclusion that trainee motivation affects training success and transition outcomes [8] (Cheng, Ho, 2001).

Since trainee motivation to learn is a significant determinant of training effectiveness, many academics have called for further research into the factors that influence trainee motivation to learn [22, 23, 28, 34] (Mathieu, et al., 1993; Mathieu, Martineau, 1997; Noe, Wilk, 1993; Tannenbaum, Yukl, 1992). Contextual variables such as training assignment, the importance of the perceived value of training, organizational environment, and training framing are among the specific suggestions [31] (Quinones, 1997). As a result, the primary goal of this research is to look into the importance of the perceived value of training and training assignments.

Statement of the problem

Motivation for training is the major factor to stimulate employees to participate in training programs organized by the organization. By the way, Trainee motivation will rise if the employees feel the training programs are helpful and meaningful. According to Noe and Wilk (1993), the more benefits workers believe they can get from engaging in training programs, the higher their participation rates are [28] (Noe, Wilk, 1993). However, there hasn't been as much research on the impact of the perceived value of training commitment and training assignments on employee training motivation. Therefore, the problem of the study is to examine the importance of training commitments and the perceived value of training tasks for motivating employees to participate in training programs at the Krovly central factory in Artem, Primorsky region , Russia.

The purpose of the study

· Employee involvement in training programs has been shown to be influenced by the idea of motivation. This research will establish the reality of the impact of the perceived value of training commitment on employee motivation at Krovly Center factory in Artem, Primorsky region, Russia.

· The findings of this study can help to improve the quality of work at the Krovly Center factory.

· Since there are few studies in this field, the findings of this study will serve as a catalyst for researchers to focus their future research on this important topic.

The objectives of the study

· Provide appropriate analytical guidance that demonstrates the impact of employees' motivation on their perception of the significance of their training effort and training assignment.

· Evidence suggests that the perceived importance of training engagement is important.

· It will close a gap in the importance of employees' perceptions of the value of training engagement on their motivation.

· Present appropriate and effective recommendations to academics and human resource professionals with the goal of raising awareness about the impact of perceived significance of training engagement employees’ motivation.

Hypothesis

H0: The relationship between training assignment and motivation to train will not be mediated by importance of perceived value of training commitment. When organizations require workers to undergo a specific training program and explain them the importance of training programs, employees may view the program as more important, does not increase their training motivation.

H1: The relationship between training assignment and motivation to train will be mediated by importance of perceived value of training commitment. When organizations require workers to undergo a specific training program and explain them the importance of training programs, employees may view the program as more important, increasing their training motivation.

Research Question

I. What is the importance of perceived value of training commitment on employees’ motivation?

Review of related literature

Training

Employees' perceptions of the advantages and benefits that training programs are expected to offer are referred to as perceived benefits from training. The advantages of training programs can be categorized into three categories: a) personal benefits and uses, b) Work benefits and uses, and c) Professional benefits and uses [11] (Dhar, 2014). Employees are more likely to engage in training programs if they believe it would help them as well as the company [13] (Facteau, Dobbins, Russell, Ladd, Kudisch, 1995). Efficient training initiatives, according to Philips and Stone (2002), result in intangible benefits. Good outcomes that cannot be quantified in monetary terms are known as intangible benefits [29]. They discovered that the intangible advantage of employees' training programs is organizational engagement [29] (Philips, Stone, 2002). According to Ahmad and Bakar (2003), workers who understand the advantages of training program participation are more committed to their company and engage in more training activities [1] (Ahmad, Bakar, 2003). They've found a strong link between dedication and training programs. Employees who believe that completing a training program will help them produce better outcomes are more likely to participate. Employees' loyalty to the company increases as a result of the benefits received from training course participation, and they think about achieving personal and professional goals as well [11] (Dhar, 2012).

Commitment

Organizational commitment is described as an employee's psychological attachment to the company. Normally, organizational loyalty is used to decide whether or not an employee can remain with the company. In the field of human resources, organizational responsibility is a hot topic right now. Organizations are very interested in determining an employee's level of loyalty to the company. Organizational engagement is characterized by Mathews and Jerry (2002) as a conviction internalized by employees [24] (Mathews, Jerry, 2002). Meyer, et al. (2006) described organizational commitment as "a force that binds a person to a goal (social or non-social) and to a course of action that is relevant to that target" [26] (Meyer, Becker, Van, 2006).

Meyer, et al., (2006) define organizational commitment as a state of being in which a person is bound by behavior to values that maintain activities and participation in the organization [26] (Meyer, Becker, Van, 2006).

Organizational engagement, according to Thompson-Hayes and Webb (2004), is "the depth of an individual's affiliation with a specific organization's involvement" [36] (Thompson-Hayes, Webb, 2004).

Organizational commitment is described by Porter et al. (1974) as the degree to which a person interacts with the organization in which he works. Organization loyalty, in their view, can be measured by three factors: believing in the organization's ideals, putting forth effort for the organization, and a willingness to be affiliated with the organization [30] (Porter, Steers, Mowday, Boulian, 1974). Steers (1977) proposed a two-factor model of organizational engagement that incorporates antecedents and consequences [33] (Steers, 1977). He then divided antecedents into three categories: personality style, job design, and previous work experience.

Motivation

Motivation is "The method of motivating people to contribute their efforts and talents in ways that facilitate the achievement of the organization's goals as well as the fulfillment of their own needs [2] (Armstrong, 2006). Employee willingness to participate in a training program is a critical factor in its success [35] (Tsai, Tai, 2003). In his report, another researcher found that work usefulness and career utility have a significant impact on employees' willingness to participate in training and development programs [19] (Kar, 2012).

Employees who are highly motivated are more likely to have a favorable impression of their company's training environment. This has been shown to result in increased training participation [20] (Khan, Khan, Khan., 2011). Empirical evidence also shows that people who are inspired to learn are more likely to apply what they've learned in the workplace [6, 18] (Cannon-Bowers, Salas, Tannenbaum, Mathieu, 1993; Hicks, Klimoski, 1987). Positive feelings about the organization are created as a result of the benefits, which increases affective commitment.

In a classroom setting employees would be driven to learn, according to another report, if they consider the value of training in relation to their expectations in terms of enhanced results, incentive, bonuses, and promotion [12] (Elangovan, Karakowsky, 1999). Employees who see training as useful are more loyal to the company [3] (Al-Emadi, Marquardt, 2007). Furthermore, it is stated that the best result that training alone can achieve is a capacity increase.

Theoretical framework

The theory up which this study is based is, the expectancy theory of training, that many other researchers have also proposed that valence, or individuals' expectations about the desirability of training outcomes, is linked to training performance, based on expectancy theory [37] (Vroom, 1964). Mathieu, et al. (1992) discovered that motivation is a function of expectations that improved work performance (facilitated by training) leads to feelings of satisfaction, higher pay, and increased promotion potential [25] (Mathieu, Tannenbaum, Salas, 1992). Colquitt and Simmering (1998) discovered that trainees who respected learning outcomes had higher motivation levels [9] (Colquitt, Simmering, 1998).

Methods

The process and the respondents

The participants in this study were 120 employees who were undergoing the training programs for the employees in Krovly Center factory, located in Artem, Primorski region, Russia. The researcher invited 120 employees from different training programs to take part in the study. The questionnaires were completed by 120 employees. 78 (65 percent) of the 120 participants in this sample were men, and 42 (35 percent) were women. The questionnaire, which was circulated to qualified workers, included questions about training motivation, trainees' perceptions of the importance of the training program, and demographic variables (such as sex and work job occupancy).

Measurement

Control variables: included sex, age, work job occupancy, and acquaintance. One self-rated item was used to assess each demographic variable. Furthermore, three elements were used to measure trainees' acquaintance with the training material.

For example:

"My past work experiences and education have some associations with the contents of the training programs".

"My job has provided me with opportunities to acquire information and skills relevant to this training course".

On a five-point Likert scale, respondents were asked to respond to the questions.

Perceived importance: The trainees' perceived value of the training program was assessed using a total of 12 elements adapted from Noe and Wilk [28] (Noe, Wilk, 1993). These things reflect trainees' opinions about how much they should benefit by participating in the training program (i.e. benefits that are job-related, career-related, and person-related). “Attending the training program would help me keep up to date on new processes, goods, or procedures needed by my job”, “Attending the training program would improve my chances of getting a promotion”, and “Attending the training program would earn me more respect from my peers”, are just a few examples. This measure had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.80.

Training motivation: This build was measured using a total of 16 items from Noe and Wilk [28] (Noe, Wilk, 1993). “I strive to learn as much as I can from the training program”, “Taking training courses and workshops is not a high priority for me” (reverse scored), and “I am willing to put forth tremendous effort in the training program to improve my skills” are examples of sample pieces. This measure was given to the trainees in two categories. The crobach’s alpha was 0.79.

Results

Table I shows the means, standard deviations, and intercorrelations of all variables used in this analysis. The following knowledge was discovered as a result of the correlations between the variables. First, there was positive correlations between perceived value and training motivation (r= 0.54), implying that trainees' perceived importance of training had a substantial impact on training motivation. Second, there were positive correlations between acquaintance and training motivation r =0.41.

0.41 and 0.54 respectively; meaning acquaintance and perceived importance had major influences on training motivation. Alternatively there was a negative relationship between age and acquaintance (r = -0.41), suggesting that older trainees were less familiar with the training materials. Finally, job occupancy was negatively correlated with acquaintance (r = -0.4), meaning that higher-tenure trainees were less familiar with the training contents and were more likely to undergo training of their own accord.

Table 1

Mean, standard deviation and correlation between variables

Variables
Mean
SD
1
2
3
4
5
6
Sex
0.37
0.41
_





Age
33.8
9.34
0.11
_




job occupancy
85.76
91.23
-0.08
0.64
_



Acquaintance
9.43
4.1
0.11
-0.41
-0.41
_


Perceived importance
34.59
7.85
0.03
0.08
-0.23
0.62
0.85

Training motivation
33.68
6.72
0.06
0.01
-0.11
0.41
0.54
0.86
Source: SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) data analysis.

Table 2

Coefficient summary of perceived value and acquaintance


Independent variables


Acquaintance
Perceived importance

Dependent variable
β1
β2
R2
Training motivation
0.45
0.53
0.26
Training motivation at 5% level of significance.

Source: SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) data analysis.

TM = β1 A + β2 PI + (1); where TM = training motivation, β1 A = acquaintance and β2 PI = perceived importance. So TM = 0.45 A + 0.53 PI + (1).

Equation 1 written above shows the regression coefficient for the perceived value and acquaintance in which (β1) = 0.45 and β2 = 0.53 that indicate one percent increase in acquaintance of employees about the training will increase their motivation 45 percent, and one percent increase in perceived value will increase their motivation to participate training programs by 53 percent. Hence the null hypothesis that the relationship between training assignment and motivation to train will not be mediated by importance of perceived value of training commitment. When organizations require workers to undergo a specific training program and explain them the importance of training programs, employees may view the program as more important, does not increase their training motivation, and is refused. So it proves our hypothesis one that the relationship between training assignment and motivation to train will be mediated by importance of perceived value of training commitment. When organizations require workers to undergo a specific training program and explain them the importance of training programs, employees may view the program as more important, increasing their training motivation.

Discussion

The findings of this study backed up the hypothesis that the relationship between training assignment and motivation to train will be mediated by importance of perceived value of training commitment. When organizations require workers to undergo a specific training program and explain them the importance of training programs, employees may view the program as more important, increasing their training motivation. According to Mathieu and Martineau (1997), firms that require specific individuals or all employees to finish a training program are likely sending out a message that training is vital [23] (Mathieu, Martineau, 1997). The current study's findings were found to be compatible with Baldwin and Magjuka (1991); Mathieu and Martineau (1997) opinions, demonstrating that an obligatory training assignment affects trainees' perceived value of the training program, which effects their motivation for training [4, 23] (Baldwin, Magjuka, Loher, 1991; Mathieu, Martineau, 1997).

This finding has a practical application. To ensure that trainees have appropriate training motivation, managers should emphasize the value and necessity of the organization's training programs. The learning and subsequent transfer of training of learners can be maximized in this manner. Naturally, such a statement must be realistic and appropriate. Hicks and Klimoski (1987) found that realistic training information was more beneficial to trainees' pre-training preparations and incentives than positive but exaggerated information [18] (Hicks, Klimoski, 1987).

The familiarity of trainees with the training topics was also favorably associated to their motivation for training, according to the findings of this study. This discovery was in line with prior research findings. In a similar situation, Bandura (1982) hypothesized that trainees' work-related experience would alter their self-efficacy [5] (Bandura, 1982). Self-efficacy, according to other researchers, has a favorable and significant impact on training motivation at every step of the training process [7, 10, 15, 16, 31] (Cheng, 2000; Colquitt, et al., 2000; Gist, Mitchell, 1992; Gist, et al., 1989; Quinones, 1997). As a result, when companies ask employees to participate in training programs, they should supply the essential information to the trainees so that they are more familiar with the subject.

Conclusion

To conclude, the findings of this study supported the hypothesis that the relevance of perceived value of training commitment will regulate the relationship between training assignment and motivation to train. When companies require employees to complete a certain training program and explain why it is vital, employees may see the program as more significant, increasing their drive to complete it.

This finding has practical implications. Managers should emphasize the value and importance of the organization's training programs to ensure that trainees have proper training motivation. In this way, learners' learning and subsequent transfer of instruction can be optimized. Such a remark, of course, must be realistic and suitable.

According to the findings of this study, trainees' familiarity with the training themes was also positively related to their motivation for training.

According to the data collected and survey done, employee motivation will improve by 45 percent if they are more familiar with the training, and by 53 percent if the perceived value of the training increases by one percent. Hence for every organization it is vital to acquaint their employees with the training program contents and inform them about the importance of the training. It will cause that trainee by understanding the value of the training voluntarily and passionately participate training programs.


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